Food Science

Food Science

“The investigation of food’s physical and chemical characteristics as well as any changes brought on by handling, storing, etc is known as food science.”

Food Science

Types of food sciences

There are sevaral types of food sciences:

1)Food microbiology

The study of the microbes that live on, produce, or infect food is known as food microbiology.This includes investigating the microbes responsible for food spoilage, pathogens that can spread disease (particularly if food is improperly prepared or stored), microbes that produce fermented foods such as cheese, yoghurt, bread, beer, and wine, as well as microbes with other beneficial functions such as probiotic production

Food Microbiology

2)Food engineering

Food engineering is a scientific, academic, and professional discipline that interprets and applies engineering, science, and mathematics principles to food manufacturing and operations such as processing, production, handling, storage, conservation, control, packaging, and distribution.

Food Engineering

3)Food chemistry

Food chemistry is one of the many disciplines that comprise the multidisciplinary field of food science. It is the investigation of food constituents such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and water.

Food Chemistry

With the attention to agricultural chemistry in the works of J. G. Wallerius, Humphry Davy, and others, the scientific approach to food and nutrition arose. For example, in the United Kingdom, Davy published Elements of Agricultural Chemistry in a Course of Lectures for the Board of Agriculture (1813), which would serve as a foundation for the profession worldwide, and is now in its fifth edition. Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to isolate malic acid from apples in 1785.



Nutrition is an important aspect of health and development.Better nutrition is associated with improved infant, child, and maternal health, stronger immune systems, safer pregnancy and childbirth, a lower risk of Noncommunicable diseases (such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease), as well as increased longevity, are all benefits of the diet.

5)Sensory analysis

Sensory Analysis

Sensory analysis examines the properties (texture, flavor, taste, appearance, smell, and so on) of a product or food using the panelists’ senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing). For centuries, this type of analysis has been used to accept or reject food products.

Types of food microbiology

There are many types of food microbiology:



Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms. Bacteria can be found almost anywhere on the planet and are vital to its ecosystems. Some species can withstand high temperatures and pressures. Bacteria abound in the human body, and it is estimated that bacterial cells outnumber human cells.

Lower levels of classification

*Cyanobacteria E. coli



*Lactobacillus streptococcus

* Helicobacter pylori


* Pseudomonas




Yeasts, moulds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms. These organisms are members of the Fungi kingdom. The organisms in the Kingdom Fungi have a cell wall and are widespread.. Among living organisms, they are classified as


Ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, and nail fungus are the most common fungal infections.


Protozoa are one-celled animals that can be found in almost any environment. Although the vast majority of species are free-living, every higher animal is infected with one or more protozoa species. Depending on the parasite’s species and strain, as well as the host’s resistance, infections can range from asymptomatic to fatal.



*paramecia is a paramecia. … John J. Lee.

*amoeba micro_photo—iStock/Getty Images. …

*Euglena. Euglena Dawn, Walter…

*Diatoms are a type of algae. Volvox Robert W. Volvox Gordon T.


Algae are aquatic, photosynthetic, and nucleus-bearing organisms that lack the true roots, stems, leaves, and specialized multicellular reproductive structures found in plants.



*Green Algae

*Brown Algae

*Red Algae

*Golden Algae

5) Viruses

A virus is an infectious microbe composed of a nucleic acid segment (DNA or RNA) encased in a protein coat. A virus cannot replicate on its own; instead, it must infect cells and replicate itself using host cell components.



Biological entities that can only survive and multiply in the presence of a host, which is a living organism such as a human, animal, or plant.

Types of food engineering

There are many types of food engineering:

Department of food engineering

Department of food engineering

1)Refrigeration and freezing

The purpose of refrigeration is to slow down bacterial development such that food spoiling takes much longer (perhaps a week or two as opposed to half a day). Freezing is intended to entirely stop bacterial activity.. Bacteria that have been frozen are totally inert.


Evaporation is the process by which a substance transforms from a liquid to a gaseous state below the boiling point; in particular, it is how liquid water enters the atmosphere as water vapour throughout the water cycle.


Packing, the act or process of packing. an approach to packing. the preparation of food, particularly meat, for sale later. material used to protect packaged products during shipping, such as a covering or stuffing additionally: components used to create water- and airtight items.

4)Energy of food process

According to estimates, a retail food product requires between 50 and 100 MJ (megajoules) of energy to produce and package each kg. Energy is needed in the food processing sector for electricity, heating, and cooling.

5)Heat transfer

Heat transfer is the term used to describe the movement of heat (thermal energy) caused by temperature differences and the subsequent distribution and variations in temperature. The exchange of momentum, energy, and mass through conduction, convection, and radiation is the focus of the study of transport phenomena.

6)Food safety

Food security cannot exist if the food is dangerous, despite the fact that it may be sufficient, nutritive, and readily available. To support the efforts of USAID’s Bureau for Food Security, Deputy Director Bonnie Glick of USAID unveiled the Feed the Future Food Safety Innovation Lab (FSIL) in August 2019.The $10 million, five-year FSIL project, co-managed by Purdue and Cornell Universities, aims to support high-impact, sustainable research that enhances food safety in developing nations.

Types of food chemistry

There are many types of food chemistry:

Food Chemistry

1)Food chemistry

Food chemistry is the study of the chemical interactions and reactions that occur between all biological and non-biological components of food . As examples of biological substances, consider foods like beef, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk.



Sugar molecules make up carbohydrates, or carbs. Along with proteins and lipids, carbohydrates are one of the three main nutrients found in foods and beverages. Your body breaks down carbs to produce glucose. The primary source of energy for the cells, tissues, and organs in your body is glucose, sometimes known as blood sugar.

3)Lipids structure

Lipids structure

Lipids are a crucial component of the cell membrane. Typically, the structure consists of a glycerol backbone, two hydrophobic fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic phosphate group. Phospholipids are hence amphipathic.

4) Structure of proteins

Structure of proteins

The polypeptide structures of proteins are made up of one or more extended chains of amino acid residues.. They perform a wide range of organismal tasks, such as DNA replication, molecule transport, catalysing metabolic processes, and giving cells structural support.

Types of nutrition

There are many types of nutrition:

1) Carbohydrates

Sugar molecules make up carbohydrates, or carbs. Along with proteins and lipids, carbohydrates are one of the three main nutrients found in foods and beverages.


Your body breaks down carbs to produce glucose. The primary source of energy for the cells, tissues, and organs in your body is glucose, sometimes known as blood sugar.

2) water

Water has the chemical formula H2O, making it an inorganic substance. It is a translucent, flavorless, odorless, and almost colorless chemical compound that makes up the majority of the Earth’s hydrosphere as well as the bodily fluids of all currently recognized living things (where it serves as a solvent. In spite of not providing food, energy, or organic micronutrients, it is essential for all known forms of life. Its molecules are made up of two hydrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds and have the chemical formula H2O. The angle at which the hydrogen atoms are joined to the oxygen atom is 104.45°. The liquid condition of H2O at standard pressure and temperature is known as “water” as well.


3) Protiens


The building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. About 20 different amino acids can be mixed in different ways. Your body uses them to produce new hormones, enzymes, and proteins like bone and muscle. They can also serve as a source of energy for it.

4) Fats


You get fats from food as a form of nutrients. While eating certain fats is necessary, eating too much can be unhealthy. Your body gets the energy it needs to function correctly from the fats you consume. Your body burns calories from the carbohydrates you’ve consumed while you workout.

5) Vitamins

People need trace amounts of chemical compounds referred to as vitamins. Every one plays a unique part in preserving health and body function. Depending on their lifestyle and general health, some people may need supplements to increase their supply. Vitamins are organic substances that are found in trace amounts in natural foods. A lack of any vitamin may increase the risk of developing certain health problems. A vitamin is an organic compound, which means it has carbon in it. It is also a necessary nutrient that the body may require from food.


There are currently 13 vitamins that have been identified .

6) Minerals


Our bodies need minerals for optimal growth and development; they can be found in food and the earth. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, copper, fluoride, molybdenum, manganese, and selenium are nutrients that are crucial for good health.

7) Dietry food

focuses on whole grains, fruits, and vegetables that are healthy, as well as low- or fat-fat milk and milk products. Among the many foods high in protein are shellfish, lean meat and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), soy products, almonds, and seeds. is low in salt, saturated fats, cholesterol, and added sugars.

Dietry Food

Types of sensory analysis

There are many types of sensory analysis:

Types of sensory analysis

1) Acceptance Testing. Paired Comparison. Ranking.

2) Difference Testing. Du-Trio. Triangle.

3) Preference Testing. Hedonic Scales. Attribute Rating Scale.


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